This guide follows the structure of the “Single Plot Study” data sheet, each of these sections on this page will provide you the information you need to collect all the required data and ultimately complete your study. We have also developed a study protocol which provides a checklist for the studies.
Single plot studies are a fairly straightforward study style. This level of study requires you to document the occurrence of earthworms using the mustard sampling method, collect the earthworms (if apparent) and provide a geographic coordinate of that site using a GPS unit or online mapping software. Once you have collected earthworms you have to preserve them in formalin and isopropyl alcohol, placing them in vials and then send this preserved earthworms to the GLWW. The equipment and chemicals required for preservation can be purchased from local pharmacists and food cooperatives, a full equipment list can be seen in the “Preservation” section of this page. This collection and preservation process is the only thing that differentiates the document an occurrence study and the single plot study. From a our research perspective, collecting and sending your earthworm samples (in single and multi plot studies) is very useful as allows us to identify the species and determine the distribution of exact species.
Depending on what you would like to get out of a GLWW study, you may be interested in the ways you can analyze the data you have collected. A vast majority of our GLWW contributors get involved as part of educational projects with specific analytical aims, so it may be important to understand how each study level affects what you can do with the data collected. It is important to remember that data analyses is only OPTIONAL, the GLWW does not require you to analyze you data in any form before you submit your data. All additional information on how to analyze your data can be found in the ‘Earthworm Analysis’ section of the Great Lakes Worm Watch site or in the ‘Analyzing Your Data’ section at the bottom of this page.
Although preservation increases the complexity of a Single Plot Study once you have collected and preserved your earthworms it opens up opportunities to do multiple types of data analysis. As you have stored the earthworms you can calculate biomass by measuring earthworm length. Also, because you use mustard sampling you have a representative sample of all species of earthworms in your plot you can easily calculate earthworm density as a factor of the number of earthworms and your plot size. The most exciting aspect of analysis that is made available by preservation is the opportunity to identify the species in you sample site.
The first thing you need to do is find a site where you would like to sample. A site is a particular habitat in which you would like to sample, such as a forest or field. Many people already have an area in mind, but natural ecosystems including forests, woodlands, and prairies are especially interesting to us at the Great Lakes Worm Watch. However, data from habitats dominated by human activity are also of value, such as farm fields, pastures, and parks.
Once you have a found an appropriate site you are ready to begin you study! It is useful to find out the name of your site for future studies, if your sample site does not have a given name (e.g. Superior National Forest, MN) you can always name it yourself with something relating to its surrounding features (e.g. Boulder Lake Forested Area, MN).
We always ask for a little contact information about the study coordinator this is only used by Great Lakes Worm Watch staff.
A sample plot is the section of soil in which you sample your earthworms inside of your site. “Single Plot Studies” look for earthworms in ONE sample plot, so if you want to calculate earthworm occurrence over a large scale (using transects etc.) then a Multiple Plot Study may be most applicable for you.
You need to use a set area of ground for your sample in all Plot Studies studies (both Multiple and Single Plot). Sampling from an area of a particular size (33 x 33 cm plot) can allow you to work out the density of earthworms. These ‘fixed’ plots’ have a set area from which you sample and the most basic plot is a 33 x 33 cm square. Using a fixed plot makes you study easier to analyze and replicate, it allows you (and us) to calculate lots of interesting statistics like earthworm density! If you want to do more than one plot you may want to look at the multiple plot study.
The First and probably most important piece of data you need to find out is the geographic coordinate of your site. This geographic coordinate allows us to place your findings on a map in order to document the distribution of earthworms. Providing accurate geographic coordinates is essential! It may sound extreme but earthworm sightings are basically useless without an accurate geographic coordinate. You only need to provide a single geographic coordinate for your site.
There are two methods that you can use to calculate the geographic coordinate of your site: a GPS unit or the mapping website iTouchMap (we have developed guides for using either). If you already have access to a GPS unit then use this to find your sites geographic coordinate. If you don’t have access to a handheld GPS unit don’t worry iTouchMap can easily produce coordinates for your site using a Google Maps style webpage.
There are different formats of writing longitude and latitude coordinates, for consistency we use the Decimal Degree format (i.e. 44.98127° latitude, -93.34479° longitude). The more numbers reported after the decimal point, the better your accuracy. We ask for at least 5 decimal places to give a reading with at least 50-100 meter accuracy. By convention, the latitude value is listed first, then the longitude value, separated by a comma.
There are several other commonly used and similar looking coordinate formats that may look similar (all numerical) but are actually very different. Just as 5 feet is very different to 5 meters, a coordinate given in Decimal Degrees-Seconds is very different than a coordinate in Decimal Degrees.
If you have a handheld GPS unit you will need to be able to create a waypoint in decimal degree format, read the accuracy of your GPS unit and change the format settings. You will need to note the:
You need to check your GPS unit and make sure each is set to their correct respective units. You can use the guide bellow to check and change your GPS settings.
To find the geographic coordinate simply stand over your sample area whilst holding your GPS unit. The accuracy of your GPS unit is found on the map screen and is usually indicated quite clearly in a box entitled ‘ACURACY’ with an M for meters. This value should be written down on your data sheet before you calculate your waypoint (ideally below 5 meters for best reading).
Once this is noted down you can make a waypoint. This is most commonly done by pressing and hold the ‘Enter’ button on the map screenuntilanew ‘waypoint’screen appears. The ‘LOCATION’ box will contain the geographic location of your sample area (e.g. N 44.98127° W -93.34473°). You should write down this value but you can also save your waypoint coordinate information onto the internal memory of your GPS unit.
You can check the Datum of your GPS unit at any point by finding the ‘Units’ screen in your GPS internal settings and writing down the value in the‘Map Datum’ option.
If you do not have access to a handheld GPS unit you can use the mapping website iTouchMap. There are MANY other mapping websites but we have chosen to provide instruction on using iTouchMap because it is easy to find the latitude and longitude in the format we request (decimal degrees). You will need to record the:
If you are experienced with using Google Maps, using iTouchMap should be very straightforward. You can find for the approximate location of your site by typing its address (or a surrounding landmarks) ‘Address’ search box and clicking the enter key. This magnifies and moves your map screen around to the area you searched. You can then pan to your site and zoom into the exact location of you individual sample area. If it is difficult to see you site try switching to ‘hybrid’ mode to see aerial images as well as labeled roads etc.
Once you have zoomed in as much as possible you can left click on your mouse to create a blue marker over you sample location. This will produce two values in the ‘Latitude’ and ‘Longitude’ box directly below ‘Get the Latitude and Longitude of a Point’ title, these are the geographic coordinates of your sample area, whichyou can write down onto your data sheet (and/or copy these into a word document) making sure you write them down to 5 decimal places. If you want to replace or move marker delete it by simply right clicking your mouse over the marker.
Don’t worry if you can’t exactly find your sample area from the aerial images, just give the coordinate to the best detail you can. Using iTouchMap is a good way to find a map coordinate but it allows large amounts of room for human error so is rarely as good as a GPS unit. If you want a more detailed guide to using iTouchMap we have developed a guide that follows as lesson like tutorial (see link below).
“Single Plot Studies” uses mustard sampling as it is the most effective and comprehensive method of earthworm sampling. It allows the sampling of all earthworm species in the soil.
In this method you pour a solution of mustard water on the soil allowing it to percolate down. The mustard solution irritates the skin of earthworms and they come to the surface to avoid it, where they can be collected, preserved and identified. This technique works well for all species of earthworms but only when the earthworms are active. If it has been very dry, very hot or very cold in the week(s) prior to sampling they may not respond as very well since they may be in aestivation (earthworm version of hibernation). To make the solution, mix 4 liters (~1 gallon) of water with 40 grams (~1/3rd cup) ground yellow mustard seed. This is the same non organic yellow mustard you will find in the spice rack in any grocery store. In contrast, if air temperatures have been moderate and it has rained recently they are likely to be active and respond well to the liquid extraction. AN EXCEPTION – if the soil is very compacted and/or has a poor structure (heavy clay, fields, roads, etc.) the extractant doesn’t move well through the soil and the earthworms will not respond because the liquid doesn’t reach them. BUT, in most hardwood forests of our region the liquid extraction method works very well. Try it, it’s fun!
You can also collect simple soil information this is not essential for us but may be useful or interesting for you to investigate. The data sheet has an optional section for habitat and soil data.
A given site (nature center, school forest, etc.) may have several different habitat types (hardwood forests, conifer forests, restored prairie, wetlands, etc.). In general, you want to report your data for each habitat separately so the data sheet includes a section to help you describe your habitat in a general but valuable manner, including habitat type, current and past disturbance, habitat size, surrounding land use and some basic soil features.
The level of impact of an earthworm invasion can, in part, be seen through the affects on the forest soils. When there are lots of earthworms the formerly thick forest floor (duff layer) composed of slowly decomposing leaves is eaten and mixed into the mineral soil below. So, for plot based surveys, we ask you to tell us how much exposed bare soil there is, some features of the forest floor, and to do a simple soil texture test. To read more about how, click here. If you want to explore other aspects of the forest soils, click here check out the soil sampling methods section.
The next step after collecting your earthworms is to preserve them for postage. By preserving earthworms you can save your specimens for later identification and analysis. Collection and preservation allows you to look at the earthworms in greater detail looking at there physical characteristics like color and size which allows you to work out things like species and biomass (see identification and analysis sections below). This does require you to have certain items of equipment.
You will need:
Identification is only OPTIONAL, if you are concerned that you do not have the time to identify the worms but would still like to know what species are in your site don’t worry, when you send your samples to the Great Lakes Worm Watch we will identify them for you and send can send you back a list of the species present! The identification process itself is an advanced process; requiring you need to look for the presence or absence of a certain key characteristics.
Identification can be done at different levels; simple identifications may only identifying juveniles and adults, oruse more advanced identification methods to identify exact genus or species. Once you have sorted these earthworms into juveniles, genus or species you can calculate species diversity as well as density and biomass values for each species and for all the earthworms community as a whole. As the GLWW checks all earthworm samples sent to us you can check your identification results against the GLWW results to see how effective you are at identifying worms!
Identification can be quite tricky for someone who is doing it for the first time and because of this we have created a whole section of the Great Lakes Worm Watch website to identification. Don’t be scared to take part in identification yourself, although this requires a bit more work it is very rewarding and provides you a much better understanding of earthworm biology. Lots of people have used our identification guide before, so don’t worry if you are interested you can check out the link below to read more about earthworm identification.
You can ether send you printed data sheet vial mail or by emailing a copy of the digital data sheet to the Great Lakes Worm Watch (Greatlakeswormwatch@gmail.com).
Label, pack and ship all sample vials (with location information!) to:
Great Lakes Worm Watch
Natural Resources Research Institute, University of Minnesota,
5013 Miller Trunk Hwy,
Duluth, MN 55811
Citci.org is a website that acts as a base for many citizen science projects around the US. We are currently altering the structure of the Great Lakes Worm Watch CitSci page to improve its usability. Check back soon!
The main limitation of Single Plot Studies is that it rarely indicates the earthworm community in the wider area (e.g. on a habitat scale). Earthworms may be apparent in one area and then be absent as little as 10 meters (32 feet) away. Therefore, if you want to find information earthworm occurrence on a larger scale you will need to use a Multiple Plot Study.
If you have collected earthworms from a set area and have list of earthworm species you can carry out many statistical tests. Both Single and Multiple Plot Studies require the collection of earthworms. When you send your earthworms to the Great Lakes Worm Watch our scientists indentify the species in your sample(s) for you. You can use our species list to check how effective you are at identifying earthworms! If this identification aspect sounds enjoyable to you, you may want to look at conducting a Single and Multiple plot study. Mustard sampling on the other hand provides a fully representative sample of the earthworm species in the soil, which is why it is the only earthworm sampling method used in Single and Multiple plot studies.
Other simple modifications to your study like using a set sampling area (or plot) can drastically increase your data analysis opportunities. Counting the number of earthworms alongside a set plot area allows you to calculate earthworm density. If you have collected and identified worms you can then use this plot size to work out and compare the densities of a particular species.